Component Definition Algorithm
The main difficulty in composing the marketing messages in traditional ways is that the main components of message, i.e. the product features, the advantages of its use and the benefits of owning it, are not related at all. One should be creative and smart to find each component.
As previously shown, all components of a marketing message are interconnected by a certain logic. The presence of such logic allows us to hope that, knowing some components, the rest can be logically "calculated". Let's see how realistic this hope is.
What is known at the beginning of work on a marketing message? The product and its purpose is usually known - for the performance of what work this product was created.
So, we begin the algorithm by defining the well-known:
1. What Product are we going to sell? [Polar Explorer sleeping bag]
2. For what Job-to-Be-Done is this Product intended? [sleeping outdoors while camping]
Now you can determine the Target Customer and his Need:
3. Which Target Customer will perform this Job-to-Be-Done? [person who is going for camping overnight]
4. For what purpose (to satisfy which Need) does the Target Customer perform this Job-to-Be-Done? [to be in good physical shape and mood]
Further, we can find out the Product Feature and the new Capability that the Target Customer might possess if he uses this Feature:
5. What Feature differentiates the offered Product from other similar products? [thickened (one inch) insulation]
6. What could the Target Customer do (what new Capability he possesses) using the Product Feature that he could not do before or without this Product? [to retain body heat for a long time during sleep, even in cold weather]
The new Capability is not needed on its own. It is needed to get rid of the Drawback in performing the Job-to-Be-Done or to gain the Advantage, i.e. to perform this job better:
disadvantage will arise during the performance of the work due to the fact that the consumer does not have the ability? How will the performance of the Work worsen (it will be performed slower, harder, more expensive, less reliable, less accurately, in discomfort, with worse results, etc.)? [don't get enough sleep and freeze on a cold night]
7. What Drawback of performing the Job-to-Be-Done happens due to lack of the Capability? How could performance of the Job-to-Be-Done worsen (be slower, harder, more expensive, less reliable, less accurate, in discomfort, with worse results, etc.)? [do not get enough sleep, freeze and catch a cold on a cold night]
8. What Advantage could be achieved in performance of the Job-to-Be-Done due to use of new Capability? How the Job-to-Be-Done would be performed better (faster, easier, cheaper, more reliable, more accurate, more comfortable, with better results, etc.)? [sleep well in warmth and comfort]
Note that a Drawback is not only a “lack of Advantage” and Advantage is not only a “deliverance from a Drawback”. This is important to consider while discussing the answers to these questions.
After clarification of the Drawback and Advantage we can consider how the Product could affect the satisfaction of the Need:
9. How does Satisfaction of Need deteriorate due to Drawback? What Direct Loss is the Target Customer suffering? [to be sleepy and sick]
10. How is Satisfaction of Need improved due to the Advantage? What Direct Benefit does the Target Customer gain? [to be cheerful and fresh]
11. How does Satisfaction of Need deteriorate due to lack of Advantage? What Direct Loss is the Target Customer suffering? [to be in poor physical shape]
People have many different needs. Satisfaction of one need affects how others are satisfied. Therefore, we consider not only Direct Loss or Benefit (deterioration / improvement in meeting one Need), but also Indirect Losses and Benefits:
12. How could the satisfaction of other needs be reduced due to Direct Loss? What Indirect Losses would the Target Customer suffer? [put self in a bad mood]
13. How could the satisfaction of other needs be improved through Direct Benefits? What Indirect Benefits would the Target Customer gain? [get a lot of pleasure from camping activities]
14. How could the satisfaction of other needs deteriorate due to the Direct Benefit not received? What Indirect Losses would the Target Customer suffer? [put everybody around in a bad mood]
Now we need to figure out what the Target Customer should pay for getting rid of Losses and gaining the Benefits:
15. What Additional Costs should the Target Customer (or someone else) incur due to possession and use of the proposed Product? [pay 50% more, need more space for storage and transportation, need to apply more effort to carry]
And finally, we should find out how the Target Customer sees the balance between Additional Costs and Benefits:
16. What is more important for the Consumer: to avoid Losses and receive Benefits or to avoid Additional Costs? [what is more important to you: to be cheerful, fresh and healthy or to have a cheap, compact and lightweight sleeping bag with thin insulation?]
The answers to most questions seem obvious and even, to some extent, repeat each other. Actually, these answers are DIFFERENT. The algorithm is built in such a way that it is much easier to answer each next question using the answers to previous questions. This is how the Method of Minimum Cognitive Effort works: the answer to each question is found easily and does not require "creativity".